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are live microbial food ingredients. A microbial ecosystem of gastrointestinal tract is complex community of microorganisms, whose task is to ferment food components that could not be split by digestive processes in the intestine. A bacterial fermentation creates lactic acid and fatty acids with short chain acetic - acetic acid, propionic, and butyric, which provide energy for epithelial cells of intestine, reducing pH, increasing the absorption of Ca, Fe, Mg and positively influence the metabolism of glucose and lipids in the liver.

Lactobacilli produce extra vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, folic acid and pantothenic acid. They also synthesize enzymes that increase the digestibility of proteins.


Lactobacilli belong to the safest and most extensively used group of symbiotic bacteria that help decompose lactose in dairy products. Different strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum is naturally found in fermented vegetables, milk, intestines, mouth and so on. Lactobacillus casei strains are used for cheese production around the world. Lactobacilli are the most sensitive component of the symbiotic microflora, which is very sensitive to the effects of various chemicals - drugs, disinfectants, etc.. Therefore, lactobacilli disappear from our environment and the organism, which is related to various health problems in humans and animals (allergies, increase in content homocysteine, cholesterol in the blood, inflammatory processes in the digestive tract, irritable bowel syndrome, colon cancer and others). Film of lactobacilli, which is formed on the mucosa of intestines, loses over the time. Therefore, Lactobacilli should be represented in food more often.

The effect of probiotics

  • Probiotics prevent the adherence and growth of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, yeast in the intestine and urogenital tract, by creating competition for nutrients and the formation of the barrier that prevents the adhesion of pathogens to the mucosa (competitive exclusion).
  • Probiotics support digestive processes in the intestine, keep the optimum pH in different parts of the intestine, creating an environment unsuitable for the application of the pathogen.
  • Probiotics stimulate the activity of the immune system, by increasing production of mucin in the intestine, mobilize immune cells - macrophages, lymphocytes, dendritic cells and others, increase antibody production. In many cases, the use of probiotics replace antibiotics, but especially in prevention and treatment of intestinal infections, for example, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, clostridial enteritis and so on.
  • Probiotics also increase immunity of organism against the formation of spontaneous tumors.